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It is home to a number of ethnic groups, including the Han , Kazakhs , Tajiks , Hui , Uyghur , Kyrgyz , Mongols , and Russians .  More than a dozen autonomous prefectures and counties for minorities are in Xinjiang. Older English-language reference works often refer to the area as "Chinese Turkestan".  Xinjiang is divided into the Dzungarian Basin in the north and the Tarim Basin in the south by a mountain range. Only about 4.3% of Xinjiang's land area is fit for human habitation. 
The northwestern border region of Xinjiang, lauded variously as a land of song and dance, melons and fruits, precious stones, and carpets, is situated in the heart of the Eurasia Continent. Xinjiang was a key link on the Silk Road and a hub for east-west cultural exchanges in ancient times. The local folklore is rich and varied. The historical name of the region is East Turkestan.
Turkistan Islamic Party ETLO (2000–2003) Supported by: Al-Qaeda   Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan  IMU  IJU  Hizb ut-Tahrir     ETESA (denied)